Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. With an area of about 2,717,300 square kilometers, Kazakhstan is more than twice the combined size of the other four Central Asian states, or about twice the size of Alaska. The country borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan to the south; Russia to the north; Russia and the Caspian Sea to the west; and China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to the east.
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan is a small, mountainous, landlocked country in the heart of Central Asia lying between 390 and 430 N and 690 and 800 E, covering 198 000 kms2, with a mixed ethnic population of under 4 500 000. The country is bounded to the north by Kazakstan, to the south by China and Tajikistan and to the west by Uzbekistan, and is almost entirely mountainous with only 7% of the land area suitable for arable agriculture. Together with Tajikistan, it is among the poorest of the former Soviet Union republics.
Tajkistan Plant life in Tajikistan varies by region. Vegetation on the steppes includes drought-resistant grasses and low shrubs. Vast fields of wild poppies and tulips grow on the steppes where they rise into the foothills. The mountain slopes are covered with dense forests of coniferous trees, such as spruce. The mountains also contain grassy meadows, where wildflowers such as wild iris and edelweiss bloom in summer. Ancient forests of wild walnut trees are found on the lower mountain slopes.
Azerbaijan The relief and climate plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijan’s top-soil. As a result of the influence of these factors soil on the territory of Azerbaijan Republic are located in the vertical zones. Republican soils are of 25 types, and divided into 60 sub-types. Chestnut (gray-brown) soils in the republic spread between 400-800 m. of elevations. The amount of humus in these soil is 2,5-3,5%. In Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, in the Ganja-Gazakh and Mil-Garabakh plains, in Ajinohur and Jeyranchol low mountainous zones these soils rise up to 600 m, and in Nakhichevan over the 1000 m. Gradually the light chestnut soils replace chestnut and dark chestnut soils.
In Great Caucasus, Lesser Caucasus, Ganja-Kazakh and Mil- Garabakh plains light chestnut soils, in Ajinohur dark chestnut soils are dominant. In mountains at 700-2000 m. of height the mountain-forest soils were formed. In lower zones, relatively dry areas brown mountain-forest soils are spread. In these soil with sparse forests and bushes the humus content is 5-7%. In upper parts brown mountain-forest soils can be found. Humus in beech and hornbeam forests reaches 5-6%. In Lankaran region due to the much precipitation the brown mountain-forest soils cover a large area.
Due to the dry climate in Nakhichevan this soil type does not exist. In south-east of the Great Caucasus in Azerbaijan, in the north of Garabakh and Murovdagh mountains ranges black soils are located. Humus in these lands is 6-6.5% . In lower parts of the Talysh Mountains and Lankaran lowland yellow and red soils are available. In these soils with humus of 8-12% the amount of iron-oxide is much. Alazan-Ayrichay valley, Samur-Davachi lowland and Shollar meadow covered with the steppe-forest soils. In the northern foothills of the Talysh Mountains alluvial-meadow soils, on the banks of Kyzylaghaj Gulf, along the Kura River and Shirvan collector the marsh-meadow soils were formed.
Turkmenistan Abstract The desert vegetation in Turkmenistan consists predominantly of semishrub sagebrush-halophyte and psammophyte communities, with dominant formations of Haloxyleta, Salsoleta, Calligoneta, and Artemiseta. We have separated plant communtites into 26 formations and 28 groups of associations with a relatively simple phytocoenological structure and homogeneous species composition. The community structure is usually determined by a few dominant species of semishrubs which also provide most of the phytomass. Other sinusia, such as herbaceous cover, are built mainly by annual ephemerous species which do not play a significant role in the community structure
Uzbekistan The Republic of Uzbekistan, one of the newly independent states of Central Asia, lies between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers (see Figure 1). The total territory of the republic is 458,000 square km, of which agricultural lands constitute 272,000; in size it is second among the republics of Central Asia. Structurally, it consists of 12 Provinces and the Republic of Karakalpakstan: the provinces are Andijon, Bukhara, Dzhizak, Kashkadarya, Nawoiy, Namangan, Samarkand, Syrdarya, Surkhandarya, Tashkent, Fergana, and Khorezm. The capital is Tashkent. Uzbekistan is located in the centre of the Region and is bordered on the northeast by the Republic of Kazakhstan, on the east and southeast by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan and on the west by Turkmenistan (see Figure 1). The natural features of Uzbekistan are varied and terrains include a mixture of large valleys, foothills and mountain regions. The northwest and the west of the Republic are desert, while the south and southwest consist of foothills and mountains