Concepts of Motivation

Motivation is defined as an amalgamation of forces that instigate, direct and maintain a certain type of behavior that aims towards achieving a specified goal (Hong-chee, 1968). From this definition it is evident that motivation is a group of certain forces working together to achieve a particular objective. Therefore, motivation is regarded as a vector quantity possessing both direction and magnitude. Motivational direction is seen in the individual’s behavioral intention while motivational magnitude is shown by individual’s strength of attraction towards the expected results (Hong-chee, 1968).

These two motivational factors are dynamic as they rely on an individual’s choice in a given environment at a particular time. Motivation therefore, is a moderately dynamic individual’s variable that is comparatively influenced by situations (Hong-chee, 1968). Gradual changes in behaviors of individuals are greatly explained by motivation and its importance shown as it is a subject matter in several areas of psychology. For instance, psychologists believe that individuals need to get motivated for them to acquire knowledge and as well as in taking advantage of medical intervention among other examples.

Motivation gives interests and incentives which results to specified actions or certain changes in behavior. Motivation is currently depicted in every part of an individual’s life. For example, one is motivated to take food because of hunger while schooling is motivated by the need for better employment, promotion in the work place or need for knowledge. What motivates varies from one individual to another as people may be motivated towards one thing but by different motives. Therefore, whatever motivates an individual ranges from incentive to coercion (Deckers, 2010).

Functions of emotion Even though quantitative deterministic motivational theories do not recognize emotion as an aspect of motivation, several qualitative mentalist theories recognize motivational aspect of emotion (Hong-chee, 1968). Emotion plays a very significant role as far as our behavior and thinking is concerned. It comprises of three key components namely; the subjective element which shows how an emotion is experienced, physiological element which shows our reaction to emotion and finally an expressive element which shows our behavior while responding to that particular emotion.

These three emotional components play a significant role and aim of an individual while engaging in emotional responses (Deckers, 2010). For example, in the school situation, students may have an “exam fever” because of the uncertainty of passing the exams and this affects the final results. Due to this emotion of fear, the students are more likely to read very hard so as to pass their exams as they endeavor to score high marks and get a better grade. In the search of obtaining a better grade, students therefore experience an emotion of motivation to study hard which a positive thing and In return achieve their expectations.

Negative emotions are avoided by taking specific actions which aim at getting good results and hence good emotional feelings. Therefore, positive emotion is a motivational component which instigates, directs and maintains people’s behavior towards achieving a particular goal. For instance, we occupy ourselves with various social roles which will end up exciting us and thus make us happy and contented with the view of avoiding agitation and sadness. Facial expressions and emotion Facial expressions are the signs that are expressed on the face indicating a particular emotional interpretation.

According to Deckers (2010), facial expressions are fundamental in communication functions which pass information about an intention or an internal feeling, thus finding these expressions helpful in interpreting internal information. Some facial expressions are connected to specific human emotions which show happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust and surprise. Research studies conducted on facial expressions and emotions show that individuals across various cultures group facial expressions in the same manner.

These studies show that a similar facial expression which was observed referred to a similar emotion in different situations. Even though different theoretical observations have been put across regarding these findings, the same conclusion on facial expression showing human emotions are related to facial expressions have been arrived at ( Peters, 2006). Facial expressions are normally involuntary and they therefore help in showing an individual’s internal expression which corresponds to its personal emotion.

For example, it is easier to tell that a person is lying because the involuntary emotion will make him act contrary to what he is lying about. These emotions normally occur as a result of shame, guilt or fear of the outcome of the lye and they are shown involuntarily. In such a situation, the facial expressions help those in authority such as security or the intelligence to establish that they are being lied to and therefore take the necessary course of action (Peters, 2006).