In this paper, it would be our task to outline the various steps, procedures, and issues relating to setting up and oversee security operations in the Republic of Vietnam. In order to do this, the paper would be using as a guideline to various steps and essential aspects that had been indicated and highlighted in the instructions. The methodology for doing this is through using an analytical procedure from the references and sources that we have learned in class, as well as drawing from other references in academic peer-reviewed journals as well as books and issues concerning the topic.
We would not only be taking the perspective of a single discipline but rather draw from various issues including management, basic security procedures, operational economics, and even behavioral and organizational psychology. The reason for doing this is so that we may approach the situation not only from a partial framework but a complete point of view.
However, one limitation that the paper would like to stress and identify is that it would in no way be able to capture all of the essential, relevant, and intrinsic aspects of the topic. Doing so would not only create volumes and volumes of pages of work, but also still not achieve the basic purpose of having a so-called complete report and analysis because of the many other factors affecting the issue and situation that could not be conceivably captured in a single report.
However, the paper would try to the best of its ability to highlight the most essential aspects especially those that have been mentioned in the instructions. Before we are able to proceed with the analysis and application of learning and references to the issue, we should first and foremost of course be able to understand the corporate security framework and environment in the country of Vietnam.
At least from the point of view of business and corporate framework, although the Republic of Vietnam has traditionally been associated with agricultural production and its population largely trained on the agricultural industry, it has recently shifted to high-end production technologies, manufacturing, and even service related industries that are truly competitive not only in the local market but also into export markets as well.
Although it has been a popular commentary by business analysts that the country is plagued with corruption and inefficiencies in the market because of various failures that are traditionally associated with third world and developing countries, it has recently improved its situation in order for various businesses to strive and be profitable in the location. Although the country is still also labeled to be a poor and developing countries with purchasing power of consumers below the global average of using as a sample size first world and developing countries, it is still also a good place to start business.
However, as is the topic of the paper, there are issues in security — specifically business and corporate security — that must be addressed especially if a company or a stakeholder — meaning an investor — would choose to invest in Vietnam and creates a company that either outsource its international products or goes under local production. Nevertheless, among these choices, there are common security frameworks that must be addressed. In this case, the mission is to open a company in the area that involves a regional manufacturing facility and a global corporate headquarters.
Also, another essential relevant detail in the case is that the company would be using a mix of the United States and local labor force in order to facilitate business. Therefore, the first aspect and analysis that we should identify is the strategy of the company on how to do this from the point of view of a security operation. As with many other security engagements — may they be in the local or international level — the first and basic strategy that must be implemented by the security team and security department of a firm is the core and support activities of this department.
According to the essential reference of starting up either a manufacturing plant or an international headquarters is a selection of the location of the future infrastructures. Because of recent terrorist threats that have been experienced especially in developing countries — and the Republic of Vietnam is classified under such a developing economy — site selection of future infrastructure has never been so important because of the essential aspect of it being a large contributing factor to the security of a certain location.
Facilities, being one of the main focuses of security, could easily turn into a disastrous situation if in the first place it’s location is not in a secure environment. Vietnam, has experienced such threats, both from local insurgents and from internationally organized groups. Many of these threats are focused either to government buildings or multinational corporations. This therefore gives a good reason for the company to secure a good location for future infrastructure and so that future security issues regarding the safety of a location may be adjusted.
Also, in line with this duty, the security department of the company that would be undergoing the process of selecting the best location should take into consideration various recommendations such as the 100 meter distance from the walls of the building to the entrance. Also, various factors such as environmental concerns and building design should be given great focus for it provides an investment opportunity for the alleviation of future security problems that would be faced in the institution of such infrastructure in the country.
Another essential core activity of implementing a security framework for the manufacturing plant and the corporate headquarters in the country is the integration of external security once the location has been constructed, secured, or taken over. As the paper has mentioned earlier, there are large threats involved especially if a certain company is considered to be multinational and run from abroad and instituted and operated in a developing economies such as the Republic of Vietnam.
Another essential planning step in the initial securing of the physical infrastructure is the integration of walls or security fences that act as the first barrier of defense in case of a security breach. Also, as the literature on corporate security points out, such perimeter barriers pose a certain disincentive for would-be security violators. However, an activity involved in distant is the coordination of the security department with those involved in the design and architecture of the location.
Perhaps it would be the best security recommendation to set up a fortresslike sense, but there are also constrains such as aesthetics and architectural design that needs discussion with other units of the company. Together with this discussion and aspect, it is important to keep in mind other infrastructure security points such as Windows, entrances, and the like. It worked perhaps take pages of work just to identify the various security measures and discussions for the implementation of a security procedure in infrastructure.
However, because of the constraints of space, would not anymore keep this discussion rolling but rather indicate that a core security aspect is the planning phase and selection of various points within company infrastructure that may pose as security threats. Also, even though we may be able to discuss at length security with respect to physical aspects, the essential issue in this case is not necessarily external security but the issues revolving the management of human resources and security personnel.
Therefore, from here on, we would be focusing in the discussion of such a topic and consider the various issues relating to security and the human capital involved in such operations especially in an international framework. In today’s modern economy, cost efficiency is taken by firms to be one of the most important and essential aspects of operations. In fact, one reason that the company may perhaps have taken into consideration on why they instituted a manufacturing plant and headquarters in the Republic of Vietnam is because of such cost efficiency with respect to wage rates and labor mobility.
Therefore, the topic of outsourcing security in a location is also a valid point of discussion and must be given focus. It has rightly been identified in the case that the security department would be utilizing a mix of United States personnel and local personnel. However, the ratio had not been indicated, and it is a probable outcome that it would be much cheaper for the company to implement outsourced security in a location. If one was to compare wage rates in the United States and the labor force in the Republic of Vietnam in the area of private security, one would observe a large degree of wage differentiation.
This means that at least in the security department, then outsourced process may be the best choice especially for low-level security personnel. However, in outsourcing security, there are also specific aspects that must be taken into consideration. There are many outsourcing security agencies today in the Republic of Vietnam, and it is not necessarily the case that the security department of the company should choose the company with the lowest rates.
Intensive research must be a primary step in the choosing of an outsourced security firm. In such research, the history, ability, cost, and efficiency of such local specialized security departments must be taken into consideration. Also, the concept of economies of scale and time efficiency teaches us that we should give further weight to security departments which have also served as outsourced security sources for other multinational companies that have chosen to institute various infrastructure and businesses in the Republic of Vietnam.
Also, it may even be that the choice of company security is not necessarily to outsource all aspects of security. The company may be able to outsource external security for infrastructure, or outsource locations where there are no security risks such as the manufacturing facility. There may also be a selective schedule for outsourced security implementation such as shifting between day and night shifts for security.
Specific low risk access points may also be assigned to the outsourcing company especially in low risk environments. In such decisions, strategic planning processes must be estimated and made not only in historical data with other companies that have transferred to the Republic of Vietnam, but also check if risk versus cost analysis would be optimal in an outsourcing decision. Yet another essential topic that must be discussed in this paper is the management aspect of security.
This involves a discussion of leadership, training, loyalty, values, and empowerment of local security personnel. References in risk-averse individuals have reflected that jobs involving protection, security, and the like are considered to be high-risk jobs and require incentives aspects not only in the form of monetary remuneration — the salary of the security personnel — but also the implementation of an effective leadership strategy in the management of the security force.
The security head of the company must take into consideration that there is a mix of individuals serving as security personnel, and this makes it much more difficult from the point of view of management because it now integrates a discussion of management strategies dealing with groups and organizations with different cultural frameworks and psychological backgrounds.
In a management article published in 1998 discussing the impacts of implementing a labor force with various cultural backgrounds, researchers had identified that management skills required from the aspect and point of view of leadership and values become more complicated because of the addressing of different incentives for different people (Pearse & Bear, 1998).
As the research has suggested, the most effective way in order to deal with such a cultural mix from the point of view of leadership and selective control is to have a management team of a high organizational structure we had specific department leaders having more or less the same cultural traits as his or her followers.
For example, also general security training may be implemented in a departmentwide approach, specific incentive values and task importance teaching should perhaps be considered to be implemented by a local security personnel from the Republic of Vietnam in order to be the head of values integration in the training process for Vietnamese security personnel and with the same argument for American security personnel. This creates a matrix like approach for management which allows for a continuous flow of understanding from one organizational structure unit to another without extreme differentiation of cultural understanding.
In an article published in 2002 also discussing the topic of cultural mix with employees, researchers had identified that the leadership strategy of most successful firms with employees consisting of various nationalities are those with matrix organizational structures with department heads having the same cultural background as his subordinates while at the same time having experience with dealing with the culture of higher management (Li, Xin, & Pillutla, 2002). Therefore, directly related to this discussion is the staffing process that would eventually be undergone by the security head of the corporation.
Human resources and investment in human capital remains to be the most essential aspect of corporate security, and more so that there are big event facts of the case that there are staff which would be chosen from the local community. Staffing, as is highly implemented by management science, is essential in almost all aspects of management, and the issue of staffing in implementing a security group in the Republic of Vietnam for the company requires understanding of various aspects.
Various articles in the academic literature have suggested a number of ways in order to go through with the staffing procedure in a multicultural environment. In an article written in 2000, management specialists have suggested that in any kind of environment in which there would be a given ratio and makes of staff from different cultural backgrounds and frameworks, the focus of management should be on a competency based system in order to measure the relative success of human resources in a company (Harvey, Novicevic, & Speier, 2000).
In a book written in 1993, another author indicates that the learning process of different cultures varies from one sector to another, and the book had even mentioned the security staffing sector to be a complicated process of selection because of the difficulty of teaching especially in high-risk environments (Perry & Fraser, 1993). In a paper written also in the year 2000, researchers had identified that the lack of knowledge of the cultural environment poses a significant risk especially in a service related industry (Harvey & Novicevic, 2000).
And given the fact that a security framework has a ready a higher risk premium involved in its operations, this factor exponentially increases the problems of a multicultural workforce. Yet another issue that must be addressed in the implementation of a security department in the Republic of Vietnam for the firm is the assignment and distribution of tasks. Recent frameworks in corporate security have identified various management aspects and procedures which allow for a template structure in overseas operations.
However, as a book article published in 2005 has identified, implementing a template structure that is hypothesized to be appropriate in all international staffing situations would be problematic because of other factors that are involved which could not be conceivably be captured by a single template for all countries (Kerzner, 2005). What is important to realize is that different cultural environments and human capital resources need different kinds of task distribution procedures that take into consideration the other factors that are essential in staffing such as cultural beliefs, location, history, and so forth.
The staffing procedure that would be used in the Republic of Vietnam mistake also into consideration previous historical frameworks and cultural beliefs of people on their approach towards American citizens. In 1992, a book was published discussing the various cultural judgments of Vietnamese citizens towards Americans, and it has been found out that the preference of Vietnamese towards Americans in a working environment is significantly lower than by pairing the same nationality with other European and Western individuals (Uba, 1992).
In 1999, almost a decade after the previous study, it was still discovered by researchers that the cultural discrimination of Vietnamese towards Americans were so deeply embedded in the culture of the people that were even still segregated instances of domestic violence of Vietnamese towards local American population (Bui & Morash, 1999).
In 2004, a book that gives focus to the cultural perceptions of Vietnamese individuals, although had identified that decades of constant interaction and product exchanged with the West have significantly changed the previous negative attitudes of the Republic of Vietnam and its people towards the United States, there is still some negative cultural feedback between the interaction of the local population where the visiting Americans, especially Americans that implement business in the country (Harris & Moran, 2004).
The job of security is never over, and especially in the consideration that a number of the staff would be taken from the local population, security becomes more essential because it would not only have to bring focus to external issues, but also issues in the staffing process as well. For example, an article written in 1995 did a statistical variance difference test between absenteeism of Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese employees within a certain company and have discovered a significant difference between the two (Kuzmits, 1995).
Such staffing issues must also be taken into consideration because of the essential nature of security of a multinational corporation. Also, recent industrial relations in the labor force in Vietnam have discovered that the history of the country in communism activities have resulted in large and powerful union bodies which could further be a risk for the firm both internally and externally, considering that there is a high probability that Vietnamese staff in the security department of the firm would also be joining such labor unions (Zhu & Fahey, 1999).
However, much more recent literature has pointed out that the cultural norm of Vietnamese individuals are usually highly adaptive especially in a workforce which would be able to give them specific job security and high wage rates (Kamoche, 2001). In the staffing process, this must be given focus and consideration because it will be able to give an incentive in disincentive map for the managers of the security department and be able to act accordingly.
Maslow, in his popularly cited and discussed theory of the hierarchy of needs of individuals, identifies the need from psychological needs and up the pyramid toward self-actualization. in the staffing procedure of the company, and in further training and values development, this gives security managers an advantage because it would allow them to have a construct as to how local population may be able to be pushed and given incentive through understanding their various needs.
As human resources and labor economics teaches us, and as has been observed in Vietnamese culture in many existing literature, there are far more complicated needs than the basic salary of individuals which would eventually also dictate loyalty, sincerity of work, and vigilance in such highly risky and stressful environments. For example, Maslow’s need hierarchy has identified friendship and social acceptability as one of the intrinsic needs of individuals, and the staffing process and procedure of the company’s security department would not be exempted from such needs.
Maybe the international American staff, our local hired security personnel, security managers must give focus to such securing those needs through adapting training, communication, and socialization procedures to the addressing of these needs and give human resources and sentenced to follow the vision and mission of the company without constantly experiencing the need to rebel or pose other security threats.
Perhaps it would be too much to ask especially in labor force that has to do with security for individuals to reach the peak of the pyramid of needs hierarchy. Nevertheless, it’s still a good solution and recommendation to overshoot these needs and would be highly beneficial to not only the security of the company headquarters and manufacturing facility, but also to the individuals as well, allowing future investment in human capital for the security department of the company.
Related research in the field has reflected that although the Maslow model has been excessively used in psychological theoretical constructs, it is still nevertheless effective and practical in the real world applications in the dealing of staffing incentives and disincentives according to their personal and professional needs (IDEUS & Institutions, 1978).
As a last topic for discussion, the issue of change management is a recent study in the field of management science that is gaining popular study in academic circles both in theoretical and applied frameworks because of the recent advancements in technology and management dynamics in the field. Especially considering the corporate security framework and the Republic of Vietnam, constant shifts and changes in technology would eventually make security managers face the challenge of having staff to deal with such change and prevent barriers to adaptation.
However, it would at least be a heartening fact that security and physical asset protection remains to be a member of the field where technological change and other such change management issues are constantly implemented and human capital are relatively non-resistant to such change (Singer, 2002). However, a suggestion that is made by the literature and academic texts regarding change management in the security industry is to introduce such change in a gradual manner.
Even though security industries have traditionally been open to change and as a matter of fact welcome it because of the various factors including a command-and-control management structure, it would still be better to implement a gradual change process and change management scheme especially in the introduction of new technology in order not only for the security department to be more cost efficient, but also so that such cutting-edge technology and other changes involved may not be transferred to wrong and destructive channels.
Although it would not anymore be covered in this paper, the discussion of security should also integrate into its implementation various recent security concerns such as cyber security and network infrastructure protection. Although such responsibilities may fall directly under the information technology department of the company, it would still be a good idea to integrate such network and computer security to the local security department in order to make sure that theories regarding security implementation and procedures may be taken advantage of by information departments of the firm.
This paper has identified the various issues regarding corporate security for a company that would be instituting a manufacturing facility and corporate headquarters in the Republic of Vietnam. Although it’s admittedly could not conceivably capture all aspects of security in such a venture, it nevertheless highlights the various issues, procedures, and concepts that are important in the security aspect of such corporate actions.