Poverty

Poverty is one of the serious problems encountered and still encountering by many countries in the world. According to the Webster’s dictionary, poverty is the state where a person is deprived or there is lack on the basic necessities like food and shelter. Poverty can be observed on many countries like the third world countries. Africa, which is one of the poorest countries in the world, is a good picture how poverty is present in the said country. The current situation of Africa in terms of access to information, education, health care, social status, political power is very low on the minimum standards of a well being and good life.

In fact, the public roads are not yet build with concrete and cement. There healthcare system is bad in such a way that they do not have instruments that will aid in the healthcare and wellness of the citizen of Africa. This is how bad the condition of Africa is today (Mammo, 1999). Incidence There are many incidences of poverty conditions on countries around the world. Even though the smallest location of given country experience poverty as well the developed countries. It has been a serious problem of every country and the issue regarding on poverty is not yet being solve.

In this part, the paper will try to examine the poverty situation of India. The case study was made by Sujatha Viswanathan and Ravi Srivastava. From the result of the case study, they revealed the current situation of most families in India that experience physical, political, social and economical margin fro development (Viswanathan & Srivastava, 2007). The railroad infrastructures of the said country were far from a developed country. Salaries of many households were categorized as very low when compared on the set of standards on wages.

The authors revealed that the citizen of India miss their meal often, do not wear proper clothes, have the state of indebtedness, no proper shelter, sexual exploitation due to the need on money and other incidence of poverty. The authors found also that people from India that experience poverty have characteristics in common. They said that those people whose poverty is part of their life were hardworking, courageous and hard-wearing. They can adjust from the harsh environment and they can work on a ruthless environment.

Prevalence Until now, there is a big discussion on how to eliminate or lessen poverty on many countries in the world. All the countries in the world experience poverty even the most powerful countries like United States. This paper will try to examine and analyze the different factors that contribute to the increase in poverty situation of different countries. Moreover, this paper will try to recommend the best practice and methods in counter attacking poverty situation to lessen the burden of a country. Significance of the Study

This paper will try to analyze and examine the real root of poverty as well the factors affecting the incidence and prevalence of the said issue. In this way, this paper will aid many concerned citizens like policy makers, donors, NGOs and researchers to make the proper step in eliminating poverty incidence from different places in the world. This paper will provide information that will aid policy makers in making laws regarding on the reduction of poverty by making programs for development of the place with poverty situation. While the donors and NGOs sector will utilize the information gathered in this paper in giving the necessary help.

Example is in India where it needs more on the economic development. In this way, donors and NGOs will focus their attention in the economic development of India. While other researchers can use the findings of this paper for further studies about poverty. Measuring poverty But before we examine the factors that contribute to poverty incidence, it is better to determine first how poverty is measured. There are many ways to measure poverty. One of these is by counting the person or families that experience lack on foods, shelter, communication and transportation.

That is why poverty maps were developed to determine how intense the poverty situation on a given place. Poverty maps are spatial representation of poverty assessment. Poverty maps show that percentage of the people under the minimum requirements for standard daily living over the total population. These poverty maps may be classified as local, national or international. Depending on the population where the data was acquired. The most popular basis for poverty maps on many families is the gross domestic product per capita or the daily allowance or salary that a family incurred from their jobs.

Other data that are utilized to form a poverty map are the technology situation of a country or specific place, education, mortality rate, healthcare system and current government institution. These factors can be combined to give an index for poverty development (Bishaw & Iceland, 2003). But why are poverty maps are made? The answer is: poverty maps give direct assessment on the current situation of a country. Poverty map shows where the exact location of poverty incidence is. In this way, concerned citizen who wants to help those people on scarcity situation knows where to apply the help.

It shows the target place for development projects (Nguyen & Rama, 2007). Geo-referenced information can free analysis from the restrictions of fixed geographical boundaries (Bishaw & Iceland, 2003). For instance, data can be converted from administrative to ecological boundaries which are often more meaningful in a natural resources management context. Mapped information on the levels and distribution of poverty make the results of analysis more easily understandable to a non-specialist audience. There are two ways on how to measure the degree of poverty on a person or country. These are absolute and relative poverty.

The former measure poverty situation of a person were the standards used do not change over time while the latter used standards that varies from place to place and changes also through time. Dimensions of Poverty There are many factors to consider that indicates when a person is below the standard living thresholds. Some of these are precarious livelihoods, excluded locations, physical limitations, gender relationships, problems in social relationships, lack of security, and abuse by those in power, disempowering institutions, limited capabilities, and weak community organizations (Clark & Qizilbash, 2006).

Another type of classifying the factors affecting poverty is by dimensions. This part of the paper will focus on the different dimensions of deprivation. Dimensions of Health The dimension on health will show the condition of a healthcare system on a place that experience poverty. There is a clinical depression on a place with poverty condition. This means that the facilities to make healthcare operation are not enough when compared to the standards. Also, the recommended dietary allowance is not met by the families experiencing poverty. Not enough nutrition especially on children is a sign of poverty.

This means that the family cannot afford to supply the basic nutrition needed by their children. According to the World Health Organization WHO, as a child grow the most important food elements needed for a normal growth and development is iron and iodine because it helps in the development of the brain. This means that when a child was not supplied by the right amount of iron and iodine, then the child will experience impaired brain development and anemia. Another form of health dimension of poverty is the increase in number of diseases that are popular on places with poverty situation.

Some of these are malaria, dengue fever, AIDS, tuberculosis, and other deadly diseases. Malaria and dengue fever are caused by improper sanitation, while AIDS were acquired by most women because they were engaged in sexual intercourse due to prostitution. These women go to prostitution to earn money for their living which is a sign of poverty. In the study of Sujatha Viswanathan and Ravi Srivastava, they showed how bad is the health condition of India which is known to be one of the countries that has high poverty rate. One of the citizens of India was interviewed about the current health situation in their place.

He described their health situation as horrible as it can. He said that their surrounding was not safe due to improper sanitation. Moreover, the citizens of India suffer from poor access of the basic necessities and healthcare programs are one of these (Viswanathan & Srivastava, 2007). “Do you need to ask us about our health? Take a look at the sewerage of our town on one side of our slum and the garbage and putrid materials of the municipal market on the other side. That should tell you everything you want to know” Another problem in the health dimension on a poverty situation is the crisis in healthcare programs.

Health institutions and hospitals were not accessible to most of the Indians. The hospitals were 5 km away and if there is an emergency, patients will die due to severe illness (Viswanathan & Srivastava, 2007). “He is 15 years old and the son of a landless laborer in Saigona Village. He suffered an attack of polio at a very young age, which affected both of his legs. In due course, he also developed mental retardation. He cannot speak out his feelings. A small room has been set aside for him, where he spends his days squatting on the floor, and occasionally crawling out whenever needed.

His father had applied for a wheelchair from the local administration but to no avail. His own earnings are too meager to provide one. The village has a high number of polio cases. Health care services are a distant dream. The nearest PHC is located 7 km away. ” Behavioral Dimensions In the behavioral dimension, the main focus in this area is the behavior or attitude of people who experience poverty. There were studies conducted to determine how these people manage their lives and cope on to their harsh environment. From the result of the study, people who experience poverty were hardworking, strong and flexible.

This is because they were trained by the harsh environment around them. They think that if they do not fight their every day problems, which are lack of basic necessities like food and shelter, they will just die. As a result, they try their best to find solutions to their problems. Another impact of poverty on the psychological aspect is the development of anger by the people experiencing poverty on the government. This is because, they know that they were not given the proper attention regarding on their condition.

People who experienced poverty thought that the government officials just use the funds of the government for personal use and not for the wellness of its citizen. Psychosocial Dimensions Poverty may also be caused by social exclusion between different societies (Silver, 1994). Because they consider poverty, many people were shocked and the psychological pattern broke. This led them to deeper poverty. When this happened, there popular practice to leave the problem in poverty is by alcoholism and early girl marriage. These two practices are prominent recently with the breakdown of social systems like joint families.

The youth are the primary drinkers of alcohols in a place with poverty. They started drinking alcohol at the early stage. Moreover, they learn to smoke tobacco. This is part of their life when encountering poverty. The youth were familiarized in drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco because their environment was harsh and the only way to escape from the harsh environment a mean time is by doing the said practice. Girl’s marriage is also very popular on a society where there is a poverty situation. Women want to have an early marriage. They were not given the proper information or what they called family planning.

Thus, at an early age, women will marry a man. As a result, almost the women will do this also because that what they see in their society. When marriage comes, dowry practices becoming more common among the poor, dowry expenditure combined with the other heavy expenditure on a girl’s marriage has become a major problem for poor and very poor parents; often leading to debt and mortgage of precious assets (Silver, 1994). Environmental Dimensions And the last dimension to be examined in a poverty environment is the environment dimension.

The said dimension can be characterized as overcrowded living conditions, hazardous living conditions due to different hazards factors like lack of sufficient supply of water and electricity and crimes and violence commitment like snatching and kidnapping crimes. Also, the environment when infrastructures are concerned was characterized as not modernized, meaning that concrete roads are not popular on places with poverty. High building structures cannot afford to build by the government because of lack of funds. That is why people just extend their patience on what ever the government will provide to them (Moreno & Warah, 2003).

Prevention: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Intervention Strategies Sufficient information is very important in solving the problems on poverty. Poverty maps will be used to find the target place and eventually apply the necessary actions to solve a specific problem. This will help NGOs, donors and the government official battle poverty in an efficient way. After this, the dimensions of poverty were also classified. Though the dimensions are somewhat similar to each other, they have characteristics that are distinct to each other and specific solution may be needed on the different dimension of poverty.

Eradicating poverty has long been one of the priorities of development co-operation. Yet, despite undoubted progress towards this goal, the strategies adopted at the international and national levels remain controversial. Poverty reduction is a complex issue, involving numerous players in a host of economic, social, political and environmental policy fields. Because the main cause of poverty is the low economic performance of a country, thus the primary solution to poverty is the development and growth of the economic sector of a given country.

This is the main focus of the World Bank in helping different countries in attacking poverty. But how can the World Bank help the economic growth of many countries? One way is to lend funds that will be utilized in creating a new business. In this way, it will create job opportunities to the citizen of a country thus decreasing the poverty situation (Uy & Cuevas, 2004). Another way to minimize poverty is the programs that are made by the government officials.

Government officials must focus their attention on poverty reduction because poverty causes also many problems such as high population rate which leads to overcrowding, increase in crime rate, hunger and starvation, and death. The programs of the government must be able to reduce poverty efficiently so that the funds that were used on poverty reduction as well the funds that were used to solve the effects of poverty can now be used to other purpose of the government when poverty is reduce. Examples of the programs that the government must implement are food and shelter aid (Kam, Hossain, Bose, & Villano, 2007).

The government may have housing plan that is affordable by the people experiencing poverty. They may also offer the poor people on low costing on the basic necessities like food and water supply. Agricultural production in their backyard will also add to their supply of food (Bellon et al. , 2007). But the government must prioritize the poor people in conducting these said programs. In this way, the poor people were given support by the government and in turn, these people will work hard so that to sustain their needs. Education is a critical part of the development agenda.

It is well worth examining the views of the poor on the institution and options available and availed of by them. Subsidizing the education of the poor youth will also be a big factor to reduce and eradicate poverty among the poor youth. Education is a basic need especially the youth because they will be the catalyst on a big change and development on their community. Educating the youth will provide them the ability and courage to help their community. But the government must subsidize and provide low cost education but high quality education so that even the poor people can afford to go to school.

Scholarship programs may be implemented so that the youth who have potential will have the eagerness to go to school and also perform well in his chosen academics. Another dimension that must be put in attention is the healthcare situation. Poor healthcare programs and infrastructures are mirror image of poverty. And we all know that health is wealth. That is why health improvement is another way to reduce poverty. This can be done by supplying clean and palatable water, providing quality healthcare programs, easy access to healthcare institution like hospitals, birth control programs, and other population reduction programs.

Though these programs will help elevate the healthcare sector of a country, the said programs must be affordable on the side of the poor people because these programs will be useless if the poor people cannot afford to avail the said programs. The problems on the health-related problems such as high rate of malaria and dengue fever will be reduced if proper implementation and information dissemination will be done by the government officials or any concerned groups. Conclusion Poverty has become a serious problem in many countries around the world.

Even nowadays were computer and advancement in technology has became part of our daily lives, still poverty can be seen in almost society in the world. And poverty is a very complex situation where there are many factors to be considered. These factors that contribute to poverty development were categorized into dimension so that there is an ease in solving poverty. Every individual has the responsibility to eliminate or reduce the poverty situation. And all the actors or players in the reduction of poverty must help each other so that deaths due to poverty may be reduced.